What is Metformin?
Metformin is one of the most prescribed medications in the world for lowering glucose levels, totaling more than 83 million prescriptions in the United States alone. Recently, several prominent clinicians and scientists have suggested Metformin can be used as more than just a diabetes control drug. In fact, Metformin may have a significant impact on longevity, positively impact several hallmarks of aging, and even extend healthspan.
What does Metformin do?
Metformin does many things; however, it is best known for lowering blood sugar levels in patients. As a result, this helps with weight loss, normalizes insulin levels, and lowers A1C. Additionally, a 2016 study published in Circulation Research suggested that Metformin may also have some anti-inflammatory effects, as well as the ability to boost the immune system. There is even some evidence to suggest positive effects for the gut microbiome.
What does Metformin help with?
Metformin is commonly used to help people with type 2 diabetes manage their blood sugar levels. For most, Metformin works to bring down blood sugar gradually when combined with a healthy diet and exercise. Metformin lowers blood sugar levels primarily by blocking the production of glucose by the liver, a process called gluconeogenesis. Metformin may also work by increasing the ability of skeletal muscle to remove glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy.
In addition to the metabolic benefits, such as normalizing glucose and insulin, a 2020 study published in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology suggests that Metformin may also decrease oxidative stress and inflammation. As many studies have also reported, this provides a wide range of benefits for both diabetics and non-diabetics, including:
- Weight loss
- Lowered risk of strokes and heart attacks
- Reduced inflammation
- Reduced stress hormones
- Reduced risk of cancer
- Reduced risk of age-related diseases
- Reduced risk of diabetes
- Reduced risk of dementia
- Improved PCOS
However, Metformin’s potential benefits are not just limited to its ability to lower blood sugar levels. Research suggests Metformin can also potentially lower the risk of all-cause mortality, prediabetes and diabetes; dementia, and certain types of cancer.
Several scientific studies support Metformin’s impact on lowering the above risks and positively affecting healthspan.
For example, in both diabetics and non-diabetics, Metformin was associated with fewer cases of several age-related diseases as well as lowering all-cause mortality. A groundbreaking 2014 study tracked over 78,000 diabetes patients across several years to see which treatments had the biggest impact on their health when compared to non-diabetic participants. Surprisingly, those that took Metformin outlived the non-diabetic patients. Though this study was not without its flaws, it nonetheless inspired further studies to verify its findings, including a similar 2020 study.
It comes as no surprise then that Metformin is associated with lower risk of diabetes, as well. The biggest supporting study, sponsored by the National Institute of Health from 1996-2001, is the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). After following 3,000 people for 5 years, it concluded that “[p]articipants who took Metformin lowered their chances of developing type 2 diabetes by 31 percent compared with participants who took a placebo.”
In addition, Metformin has been associated with a lower risk of dementia. From 2004 to 2009, a study of 68,000 patients aged 65 and older was conducted to observe the correlation between diabetes and increased risk of dementia. They concluded that the risk of dementia was greatly lowered when taking Metformin or a sulfonylureas drug. Another similar study in 2014 of roughly 365 people aged 55 and older determined that Metformin had a notably positive impact on cognitive impairment. Additionally, a 2021 investigation showed that Metformin may help protect against macular degeneration in older adults, while a 2022 study suggested that Metformin may reduce the need for joint replacement.
There are several other published studies that show Metformin’s effectiveness in reducing the risk of certain types of cancer and cardiovascular events. An ovarian cancer study conducted by the Mayo Clinic concluded that diabetic women that took Metformin had a higher survival rate than non-diabetic women who didn’t. Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer in women and also the most deadly with a mortality rate of 65%.
Last but not least, Metformin can also help with weight loss. A ten-year follow-up study published by the DPP showed that patients taking Metformin lost an average of 2.5kg (5.5 pounds) and were able to keep the weight off throughout the ten-year period they were studied.
Not all studies show a potential benefit, however, including a 2022 study that concluded Metformin did not “significantly improve” survival in breast cancer patients. This is important to remember for those touting Metformin as a “miracle drug” – while there are many potential benefits of Metformin that have been exciting researchers for decades, it’s not a one-size-fits-all cure for any ailment.
Note: Metformin has not been approved by FDA for these uses, but there are multiple studies that have demonstrated the potential effectiveness of Metformin towards these benefits (see below).
How does Metformin help?
At a mechanistic level, nobody quite understands how Metformin works exactly.
However, researchers repeatedly recognize these potential effects:
- Lower glucose production in the liver
- Anti-inflammatory effects
- Anticancer effects
Metformin is a weak complex I inhibitor (a part of the mitochondria), so it might activate stress responses that fight off disease.
It is possible that, if you inhibit mitochondria, it can activate a variety of pathways, which can promote the antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects seen with Metformin. However, this effect is relatively mild, as a strong inhibition of mitochondria has adverse effects.
What benefits have our customers noticed?
We’ve asked thousands of our Metformin patients to give us feedback at regular intervals to better understand how we can achieve optimal outcomes for our customers. We regularly check in to see the relative effectiveness of treatments and their side effects.
80%+ AgelessRx responding customers report seeing at least one benefit from Metformin. We’ve had thousands of customers take Metformin and complete a 30-day check-in. Of those who responded, over 80% report seeing at least one benefit. Metformin customers appear to have more improvements over time, with current data showing 87% reporting at least one improvement after their third check-in.
75% of women reported improvements in cravings and increased appetite regulation. While Metformin may lead to some weight loss in customers, only 45% listed Metformin as improving their weight. Metformin has shown promise with small amounts of weight loss, but appears to be more effective at limiting cravings and regulating appetite. Our own Dr. Sajad Zalzala explains how Metformin can help with weight loss and what to expect for yourself.
25% of customers reported side effects and most appear to resolve on their own. Upset stomach was the most common side effect. However, of those who reported, this side effect tended to resolve itself within 30 days more than 60% of the time. We asked our Chief Medical Officer about Metformin side effects and he recorded a video that has helped thousands reduce their side effects from Metformin.
I’ve never heard of Metformin, how does AgelessRx know so much about it?
Our medical team – including our Chief Medical Officer, Dr. Sajad Zalzala – has prescribed Metformin to thousands of patients for decades. As dedicated experts, they have made it not just their commitment to read through much of the Metformin scientific literature, but their passion. These are some of the seminal papers that shed light on Metformin’s potential.
- This 2014 paper coming from the University of Cardiff in the UK shows that people on Metformin, even those who were diabetic and obese, had less all-cause mortality when compared to control patients without diabetes who were not taking Metformin. Researchers compared over 78,000 newly-diagnosed diabetic people on Metformin to an equal number of non-diabetic people not taking Metformin. In general, diabetic patients on Metformin were found to have longer survival rates than the non-diabetic control group. The implications of this are huge; does that mean that people with type 2 diabetes live longer than those without if they are taking Metformin? The study shows that it may be possible. But, as mentioned above, more studies are necessary to verify these results, and while some are pending, others (such as the similar 2020 study) have spurred even more questions in their own right.
- The Interventions Testing Program (ITP), which is the most reputable program to test compounds that might have an impact in aging, tested Metformin alone, and Metformin plus Rapamycin in mice. The Metformin-only trial showed that mice lived 13% and 10% longer in two of the testing centers. However, in the third center mice lived 1% less. There is ample speculation as to why this dissimilar result could have happened, but when Metformin was given with Rapamycin, mice had a 23% increase in lifespan. That is one of the longest-living animal results in ITP’s history.
- This meta-analysis studied the link between Metformin and cancer. The research showed that people taking Metformin (whether they had diabetes or not) got much less cancer. The studies suggest a really strong link leading to less incidence of cancer in most types, such as breast, colon, liver, and lung cancer. Importantly, this relationship did not hold up for prostate cancer.
- This 1991 study was the first to show that Metformin specifically targets hepatic glucose production; meaning that it targets the insulin sensitivity of the liver much more so than the muscle. This is one of the first papers that correctly elaborated on Metformin’s ability to lower blood glucose in patients with high blood sugar, while keeping those levels stable in patients with normal blood sugar levels.
How does Metformin help with weight loss?
Metformin is an FDA-approved drug used to treat high blood sugar levels that are typically a result of diabetes mellitus, otherwise known as type 2 diabetes. When Metformin is used in combination with exercise and a proper diet, it can help to decrease the amount of sugar that the body absorbs, thus also helping to limit the amount of glucose produced by our liver and in our blood.
Metformin works by inhibiting the production of glucose in our liver, and by also increasing our sensitivity to insulin. As a result, Metformin can help to regulate our blood sugar levels and prevent them from getting too high. In addition, Metformin can also help to reduce the risk of developing diabetes-related complications, such as heart disease and stroke. In recent years, Metformin has been linked to helping users with weight loss. In a study published by Diabetes Cares, it was concluded that Metformin worked as a treatment for losing excess body weight.
How does Metformin help to facilitate weight loss among users?
Metformin works to lower blood sugar, which has a direct impact on our ability to lose weight. Metformin also impacts our hunger cues, or the feeling we receive when we first start to get hungry. This can help people who are trying to lose weight by eating less food overall. In addition, Metformin has also been shown to boost the effects of other weight loss methods, such as exercise. So if you’re looking for a medication that can help you lose weight, Metformin may be worth considering, but it’s important to note that, on average, 60% of those who take Metformin report weight loss.
Losing weight is often a difficult and frustrating process, which is why many people turn to medications like Metformin for help. However, it’s important to understand that taking Metformin alone will not cause you to lose weight. In order for the drug to be effective, you also need to follow a healthy lifestyle that includes eating healthy foods and getting regular exercise. Everyone responds differently to Metformin, so if you don’t make other lifestyle changes, the drug may not lead to weight loss. When used in combination with other healthy habits, however, Metformin can be very effective in combating weight-related health concerns in most people. So if you’re thinking about taking this medication, be sure to also commit to making some other positive changes in your life.
Can Metformin help with insulin resistance?
When we eat foods high in sugar, our bodies release insulin to help process the sugar. Insulin is a hormone that helps shuttle sugar into our cells to be used for energy. However, over time, too much sugar in our diets leads to more and more insulin being required for cellular signaling – in other words, these cells have become less insulin sensitive. This can lead to many different chronic illnesses and can also speed up our aging. While insulin resistance often does not have any noticeable symptoms in the short term, it can cause serious damage in the long term. In order to prevent insulin resistance and the health problems that come with it, it is important to limit the amount of sugar we consume.
Metformin is a medication that has been used to treat diabetes since the 1950s. It works by reducing the amount of sugar your liver releases into your blood, and making your cells respond better to insulin, so they take up more sugar from the blood. Many studies have looked at Metformin’s effects on the body, and it has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance. In addition, a 2004 study published in the Journal of Internal Medicine suggested that Metformin may also lower blood sugar levels and triglyceride levels. While Metformin does have some side effects, such as abdominal pain and diarrhea, these are typically mild and go away with time. Overall, Metformin is a safe and effective medication that can help to control blood sugar levels both for people with or without diabetes (including those with pre-diabetes).
How does Metformin work on aches and pains?
Those with type 2 diabetes often experience body aches and chronic pain. Many patients have stated that they’ve noticed a significant decrease in their overall pain levels after taking Metformin. Metformin helps to minimize these issues by reducing the amount of sugar that’s present in the blood. It also works to improve one’s sensitivity to insulin, which is essential in managing diabetes.
Additionally, Metformin has been found to have protective effects on the body and musculoskeletal system, especially in females. These findings suggest that Metformin could be an effective treatment option for those who suffer from type 2 diabetes and experience chronic pain.
New research has shown that the drug may also be effective in treating pain and body aches. The study, published in Frontiers in Pharmacology, found that Metformin activates a protein known as AMPK. This protein then stops the mTORC1 pathway, which is responsible for causing pain and body aches. The study provides new insight into the potential benefits of Metformin and could lead to the development of new treatments for pain.
Can Metformin slow the risk of developing cancer?
A large-scale study published in the US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Health found that Metformin use was associated with a 23% reduced risk of developing cancer. While more research is needed to confirm these findings, the results of this study suggest that Metformin may be a promising option for cancer prevention. Additionally, some smaller studies have found that Metformin may help to inhibit the growth of tumors in the prostate, colon, and lungs. Though more research is needed in this area, the available evidence suggests that Metformin may be a valuable tool in the fight against cancer.
How does Metformin reduce the risk of cognitive impairment from aging?
As previously stated, Metformin has been shown to be effective in treating insulin resistance, which is a condition that can contribute to cognitive impairment and cognitive deterioration. Since Metformin works primarily to help reduce the body’s resistance to insulin, this would in turn have a direct impact on the chances of the body developing cognitive-related issues down the road.
As people age, it’s common for their cognitive abilities to decline. This can lead to problems with memory, focus, and decision-making, which can reduce the quality of life for older adults. There is some evidence, however, that a common diabetes medication called Metformin may help to lessen cognitive decline. In a 2014 study (mentioned above), 365 people over the age of 55 were followed for several years to see how their cognitive abilities changed over time. The participants were compared to a group of similar adults who did not take Metformin. The results showed that those who took Metformin for the longest period of time were less likely to experience cognitive impairment. According to the study authors, “long-term therapy with Metformin might minimize the likelihood of cognitive impairment” in people with diabetes. These findings are similar to those from a previous study (see the 2004-9 study above), which provides hope that Metformin may be effective in slowing down cognitive decline.
In addition, Metformin has also been shown to improve blood sugar control, which is another risk factor for cognitive decline. Therefore, by treating insulin resistance with Metformin, people may be able to reduce their risk of developing cognitive problems later in life.
How does Metformin lower the risk of colon and pancreatic cancer?
Given that colon cancer is currently the third most common cancer in both men and women, and pancreatic cancer is considered to be one of the most deadly forms of the disease, it’s no wonder that scientists and medical professionals are always on the lookout for new and improved ways to prevent and treat these types of cancers. Enter Metformin, a medication typically used to help regulate blood sugar levels in diabetics.
Metformin is a common medication used to treat type 2 diabetes, but recent studies have shown that it may also have cancer-fighting properties. When used in combination with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, Metformin has been shown to improve patients’ overall response to treatment. In addition, Metformin has been linked to a lower risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as colon or pancreatic cancer. These potential benefits make Metformin an attractive option for both the prevention and treatment of cancer. Further research is needed to confirm the efficacy of Metformin in the fight against cancer, but the results of current studies are promising.
According to Dovepress, Metformin has a variety of unique benefits when it comes to cancer. It can reduce the overall occurrence of cancer diagnoses, decrease the mortality rate from cancer, and reduce the likelihood of cancer relapse. In addition, it can help with tumor movement and reduce the chance of tumor malignancy. Finally, it can increase the treatment results for patients receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy. These benefits make Metformin an important tool in the fight against cancer.
Recent studies have shown that Metformin may also help lower the risk of developing certain types of cancer. For instance, a 2005 study showed that Metformin helped to lower the risk of developing certain cancers by nearly 23%. Additionally, Metformin has also been shown to have a therapeutic response on cancer cells currently within the body, ultimately helping to prevent the overall growth of future cancerous tumors. With all of these unique benefits associated with Metformin’s impact on both preventing and treating certain cancers, it’s no wonder that this medication is quickly becoming a go-to choice for those looking to decrease their risk or fight an existing battle with colon or pancreatic cancer.
Can Metformin help with fertility?
Metformin is a biguanide drug used to control blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes. It is also sometimes used to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Researchers have found that Metformin may have fertility-related benefits. For example, one study found that Metformin improved live birth rates in women with PCOS who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Other research has shown that Metformin may improve egg quality and increase the success rates of IVF cycles.
Additionally, Metformin has been found to reduce the risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and improve pregnancy outcomes in women with PCOS. While more research is needed, the evidence suggests that Metformin may offer several fertility-related benefits for patients. As a result, it may be an effective treatment option for those struggling with fertility issues.
Helps to Induce Ovulation
According to research published by The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Metformin can help to improve ovulation for women, especially those suffering from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, or PCOS, by improving their insulin sensitivity, reducing gluconeogenesis, and reducing overall androgen production. In fact, studies also found that when compared to a placebo, Metformin had a direct impact on inducing ovulation for infertile women dealing with PCOS. This is primarily because women’s menstrual cycles become more regulated while on Metformin, thus helping to induce ovulation in users. Metformin has been found to be most effective in managing PCOS when used in conjunction with other fertility treatments like clomiphene citrate. However, it’s important to speak with a doctor before beginning any type of fertility treatment, as there can be potential risks and side effects associated with each method. But for women struggling with PCOS, Metformin may provide a much-needed solution for improving fertility and inducing ovulation.
Reduces Risks of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS)
Patients who receive fertility treatments such as IVF or ICSI are at a heightened risk of developing Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome, otherwise known as OHSS. This is especially true for women who have PCOS. However, according to the National Library of Medicine, Metformin may be beneficial in combating OHSS. Metformin helps to reduce users’ typical increase in body weight as well as circulating progesterone and estradiol and vascular permeability. In turn, patients can still receive their IVF or ICSI treatments and have a much lower risk of developing OHSS. As a result, Metformin may be an important tool in helping to manage fertility treatments while reducing the risk of OHSS.
PCOS is a difficult condition to deal with for many reasons. One of the most difficult aspects is managing weight. Many women who suffer from PCOS find that they put on weight much more easily than other women, and this can lead to obesity or other weight-related health problems. Metformin has been studied as a possible treatment for PCOS, and it has been suggested that it can help reduce weight in women who suffer from the condition. As their weight levels decrease, their bodies are better able to ovulate, which increases their chances of a successful pregnancy. Metformin is a valuable treatment option for women with PCOS, and it can help them manage their weight and increase their chances of becoming pregnant.
Improvements in Male Reproduction
When it comes to reproductive health, Metformin has been shown to be a valuable tool for both men and women. In women, the drug has been linked to improved fertility and reduced risks of miscarrying. For men, Metformin has been shown to improve sperm quality and reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. In one study, 45 men with metabolic syndrome were given Metformin for a period of six months. Blood and semen samples were taken both before and after the experiment, and the results showed a significant improvement in sperm quality. Metformin has also been shown to help reduce insulin resistance, which is a major contributor to metabolic syndrome. As such, the drug offers potential benefits for both sexes when it comes to reproductive health. However, a 2022 study by Stanford suggested that Metformin may be linked to sperm development that could cause birth defects in males born to fathers who were taking Metformin during conception. Though the exact mechanisms that cause this are unclear and potential risk is minimal, this study is still worth mentioning.
What is the possible connection between Metformin and longevity?
Scientists have long been searching for a way to “fix” aging, and it seems that they may have finally found one. Metformin is a drug that has been used to treat diabetes for many years, but recent studies have shown that it may also have the ability to reverse the effects of aging on a cellular level. In fact, Metformin seems to target many of the hallmarks of aging, including DNA damage, cell senescence, and mitochondrial dysfunction. As a result, Metformin has the potential to improve a wide range of age-related conditions, from Alzheimer’s disease to heart disease.
While there is no way to completely prevent cellular aging, some recent research suggests that Metformin may improve our healthspan, or the amount of time we enjoy optimal health. In one study, middle-aged rats that were given Metformin experienced improvements in cognitive function and physical endurance. They also had lower levels of inflammation and oxidative stress.
For example, the fact that insulin levels go down may have to do not only with Metformin’s effect on glucose, but because autophagy has increased, mitochondrial function is better, genetic stability is good, etc. Additionally, Metformin does lead to a decrease in oxidative stress (ROS production) and a decrease in DNA damage (a consequence of using a low dose of a mitochondrial poison). Lastly, it also boosts immune function and reduces inflammation, all things linked to an increased healthspan.
As mentioned previously, more research is needed to confirm these findings, but with the above studies to consider, it seems that attitudes on the potential benefits of Metformin are nothing if not optimistic.
What are the side effects of Metformin?
Knowing and understanding which secondary effects of Metformin that you are probably going to encounter is most likely among your central worries. The main thing you ought to know is that Metformin is a very well-tolerated and safe medicine. As a matter of fact, it is most likely among the most secure meds that we offer.
In that capacity, any occurrence of secondary effects will, in general, be gentle and frequently disappear as your body becomes accustomed to the ongoing dose you’re taking.
Most Normal Side Effects of Metformin
The most regularly announced results of Metformin have to do with gastrointestinal issues. Most patients who experience side effects report at least one of the following:
- diarrhea or looseness of the bowels,
- stomach cramps,
- gas and bulging,
- or queasiness.
Once more, these typically occur during the beginning of your treatment (not long after you start taking Metformin routinely) and will generally disappear altogether within 30 days.
How do you prevent Metformin side effects?
These side effects will usually die down on their own after 30 days. So don’t allow these minor side effects to get you down or throw you off course: staying with your recommended dose is quite often the most ideal way to go.
During this time, we attempt to suggest at-home remedies or over-the-counter medicines as your most memorable request of treatment for these incidental effects.
For those encountering diarrhea or loose bowels, try taking a low dose of Imodium. This straightforward drug can be bought over the counter (at drug stores or retailers) and is a powerful method for diminishing these side effects. Nonetheless, remember that this is a transient arrangement, as Imodium should not be taken more than a couple of days straight.
Also, gas or stomach bulging can be treated with simethicone, which is in many cases sold under the brand name of Gas-X. This has been demonstrated to be a productive, modest alleviation for these side effects and can be taken on a case by case basis.
Anybody who routinely encounters gastrointestinal issues may utilize ginger as a stomach soother. It has been broadly utilized as an antiemetic cure (which is to say it prevents nausea and vomiting).
Furthermore, Metformin has also been associated with decreased vitamin B12 levels within your body. While it is not clear that Metformin is the direct cause of vitamin B12 deficiency, you should know nonetheless that those taking Metformin do sometimes experience it. For this, we suggest enhancing your Metformin remedy with vitamin B12 supplementation.
Where can I buy Metformin online?
While there are several telehealth services that provide prescriptions like Metformin, the best choice among these would have to be AgelessRx.com, a first-of-its-kind longevity platform.
With AgelessRx, you not only get Metformin delivered right to your door, but you also receive access to virtual doctor visits, a personalized wellness assessment, and a slew of tools and resources to help you optimize your health so you can extend your healthspan. And besides the prescriptions, all of the above is free and accessible to anyone, regardless of whether or not you make a purchase.
To get started at AgelessRx.com, first create a user profile by selecting “Log In” at the top right of the home page, then selecting “Create Account.” Once you enter your preferred email and password, you will be prompted to take the wellness assessment, featuring questions curated by our longevity experts to evaluate known risk factors for chronic disease and aging.
When the assessment is complete, you will have a clear picture of your current strengths and opportunities for improvement. With this, you can select prescriptions like Metformin to address your emerging risks and focus your journey to a healthier you.
Since you already know you want Metformin, all you have to do is navigate to the AgelessRx Metformin page and select “Buy Now” to get the process started. (Don’t forget to check above the button to see if there are any coupon codes you can use at check out!) Next, follow the prompts and answer all of the questions as fully as possible so your medical prescriber can best determine whether Metformin is right for you.
After your medical prescriber has taken the time to review your request, you will receive notification of approval within the next few days. From there, all you have to do is sit back and relax while partnering pharmacies prepare your order and ship your product to your doorstep. You will also receive regular updates to your email and AgelessRx customer portal, including product instructions and helpful tips unique to your prescription.
As you progress with Metformin, your prescriber will occasionally ask for a brief check-in to ensure your continued safety. Your Metformin order will also automatically bill and ship quarterly (every three months) so you don’t have to worry about constantly checking and renewing your order. Other than that, you will be free to enjoy the benefits of Metformin and explore the other longevity options from AgelessRx at your will.
- What is Metformin?
- What does Metformin do?
- What does Metformin help with?
- How does Metformin help?
- What benefits have our customers noticed?
- I’ve never heard of Metformin, how does AgelessRx know so much about it?
- How does Metformin help with weight loss?
- How does Metformin help to facilitate weight loss among users?
- Can Metformin help with insulin resistance?
- How does Metformin work on aches and pains?
- Can Metformin slow the risk of developing cancer?
- How does Metformin reduce the risk of cognitive impairment from aging?
- How does Metformin lower the risk of colon and pancreatic cancer?
- Can Metformin help with fertility?
- What is the possible connection between Metformin and longevity?
- What are the side effects of Metformin?
- How do you prevent Metformin side effects?
- Where can I buy Metformin online?